1. Explain the layers of the OSI, TCP/IP, and the


1. Explain the layers of the OSI, TCP/IP, and the Internet models in details, and elaborate on their similarities and differences.

2. Explain the concept of Capsulation/De-capsulation.

3. Explain TCP and UDP, their differences, and applications. Which one is better and why?

4. Explain in detail the hub, active hub, switch, and routers, and their purposes, similarities, or differences.

5. List and explain guided and unguided mediums and give a couple examples of each.

6. Explain the difference between wire and fiber optic and list the advantages and disadvantages of each one in details. 

7. Assume that you have a wired network. Explain how you would covert this system to a fiber optic system.

8. A RF amplifier has a power gain of 30 dB. How many times does this amplifier amplify the incoming signal? Show your calculations step-by-step.

9. Explain how analog signals are converted into digital.

10. Explain how wireless networks work. 

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